Although known primarily as a ceramist, Peter Voulkos experimented with large-scale bronze sculpture in the 1960s while living in Berkeley, California. In 1961 he was joined by Julius Schmidt, a sculptor who operated the foundry at Cranbrook Academy of Art. Voulkos’s pieces are see-through constructions that reach horizontally into space. The sculptures were based directly on the ground rather than on platforms. His basic vocabulary consisted of the cylinder, the elbow, the dome, the flat sheet, and the rectangular cube.